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Varna

Varna is a city in northeastern Bulgaria. Situated on the northern and western shore of Varna bay and the northeast coast of the lake. South of the strait connecting the bay and lake are only Asparuhovo and Galata districts. In Varna held many cultural events, including the international theatre festival “Varna summer” international music festival “Varna summer” international ballet competition, the international jazz festival “Varna summer” festival “love is folly”, the international puppet festival “golden dolphin, “august in art, international folklore festival, sea week and others.

The historical museum store oldest gold treasure in the world. In Varna region the earliest human presence is the old stone age (paleolithic), this is before 100 000 years and has found artifacts in the locality, upright stones mesolithic. Opened and Varna necropolis in 1972. Who function in 4200g. bc. Where is found the oldest gold treasure in the world.

In the southeastern part of Varna are roman baths (baths). They are located more than 7 acres and are oriented to the cardinal directions. Were built at the end of the second century. Preserved walls in places reaching 22 m height. Baths were not only a place for bathing, but also the center of public life.

They belong to the type “small imperial baths.” The main baths are: frigidarium room for cold baths, tepidarium room for bathing in lukewarm (hot) water, caldarium room for bathing with hot water.

Located on the imaginary axis, dividing the building into east and west. The main entrances to the bathrooms are in the eastern and the western edge of the northern facade. Three stone steps descends to the east or west entrance vestibuli. Followed by Eastern and Western dressing apoditeria, one of the largest rooms in the building after the basilica thermarum. Here visitors have left on your clothes and store their values ​​in the accompanying slave or designated for this personnel capsarii. Complying with the roman architect Vitruvius canon recommends warm baths in the rooms are facing south.

The highest preserved part of the baths the roman tower was one of the walls on the west apoditeriy.

The first stage was bathing etc. “short bath” those who passed successively through frigidariite (halls for bathing in cold water), tepidariya (bathing with warm water) to de prepare for the main bathing with hot water caldеra. In the apse he had a large pool and two smaller along the walls, and all three received water from the boiler rooms. Those citizens who wanted to continue with the “full program” passed in the actual tepidariy and then in the actual frigidarium. Thus the body is refreshed and prepared to exit the cold rooms of the baths.

The beautiful rooms precluded simultaneous use of the bathroom for men and women. In the southern part was prefundiumat there is hot water and air in the bathroom. Warm rooms of the baths had a double bottom. The top was worn by vertical clay pipes. The space between the pipes circulate hot air, heated up the floor. Similarly, warming room, the air passing into the space between the walls and marble tiling them. Along the eastern and western wall galleries were used for storage of firewood and the southern end was latrinata toilet room of the baths. Above the galleries have shops serving citizens. To the north, in the palestra was buried water tank from which a stone troughs and water troughs flowed to prefurniuma . In the ceramic tubes was taking to the water fountains and pools. Under the floor of the premises passed arch shaped channels for waste water. They were inclined so that the used water discharged to the sea.

Aladja monastery

One of the most famous rock monastery at the picture of the bulgarian Black sea coast is Aladzha monastery. In the late 19th century Shkorpil brothers began the study of this rock monastery. From 1906 the monastery functions as a museum and tourist site. In 1912 was declared a national antiquity, and in 1957 an architectural monument of national importance. In the 70 of the 20th century near the rock monastery was built museum building. In the foyer of the building are offered promotional materials, scientific publications, souvenirs and discs with bulgarian church music and folklore. In the 13th century there was a hermit monks in it. In 40 m. limestone made 2 levels. At the first level are the monastery church, cells, dining room and kitchen, a small cemetery church crypt (ossuary) and business premises. The second level is a natural rock niche at the east end of which is built the monastery chapel. After the fall of Bulgaria under Ottoman rule in the late fourteenth century monastery Aladzha gradually declined and is likely to XVI-XVII century was abandoned.

At about 700 meters west of the monastery are a group of caves known as the “catacombs”. The discovered artifacts pottery, coins and other graphite testified that “catacombs” were inhabited in the early christian era (4 to 6 centuries). Later in XIII to XIV century “Aladja Monastery” and “catacombs” constituted part of a larger monastic complex. Catacombs consist of 3 floors. The first floor has 4 rooms, cut around the corridor length 4 m. In the middle of the largest room is an opening through which probably ran staircase leading to second floor. The second floor has two rooms. The third floor is roughly hewn gallery with a steep slope, reaching a small playground, which is released through an opening. Perhaps here was going to get to the plateau of the monastery where the remains of early byzantine basilica from V to VІ century.

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