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Kamen breg

Between Kavarna and Shabla is located Kamen breg, 60 km. north of Varna. The village impresses with clean and neat farmhouses. Each year there are flocking every day hundreds of people who meet the first july sunrise. They admire the natural beauty and celebrate july morning.

On the beach in front of the village will enchant view, as long as the eyes of kilometers to the north and south.

The view is incredible. The area “light” is extremely popular among fans of rock and hippie culture in Bulgaria. Kamen breg has long been associated with “children of the sun” and the feast july morning. The area received its name thanks to an old abandoned drilling for natural gas, which is already half a century, there is fire. The feeling of harmony between man and nature here is complete.

Only 2 km from shore Kamen is the national archeological reserve “Yailata”. Reserve a seaside terrace area of ​​45 hectares, separated from the sea by 50-60 meter cliffs. The site was inhabited 7000 years ago, have lived thracians, romans, greeks, slavs and bulgars. In Yailata found and documented 101 cave dwellings that form the village founded in the fifth millennium b.c.

Smooth walls of caves and niches carved talk about the existence of an ancient settlement.

Found three necropolis (family tombs), carved in the rocks of III to V century. Necropolis №1 has emerged around the carved shrine facing the rising sun. In the northern part of the “big Yaila” is a small early byzantine’s fortress built at the end of V century. Partially preserved four towers and a gate tower. From ancient times are also a sanctuary, sacrificial stones, wineries, four carved tombs. In medieval caves were used as a monastery complex. The walls of some proto bulgarian signs runes, crosses and stone icons. The area “Yailata” was declared an archaeological reserve with a decision of the council of ministers in 1989 it covers a relatively wide coastal strip of 500 meters, starting north of the village of Kamen breg and reaching south to the resorts ‘Rusalka’. On the territory of the archaeological complex has many monuments from different historical periods VI millennium b.c. the middle of XI century. Rock Church “st., st. Constantine and Elena “is situated in a cave with three compartments, the last one with a vent.

On the walls are carved numerous crosses and proto runic characters.

Probably during the early middle ages the cave was used as a church. For centuries, local people celebrate the day of saint Elias in the cave. Regular excavations were started back in 1980, efforts are focused primarily on the study of early byzantine fortress, the necropolis of rock tombs, cave complexes. Area of 90 hectares has been declared a protected archaeological terrain.

CAVES

On the reserve there are many caves, hewn by human hands. Are single or grouped into complexes. Only big Yaila are 101. For several years, with the help of cavers, geologists and technicians, they are detailed. The caves are located at several levels in the vertical rays emitting region of dobrudja’s plateau and the sea.

Were used over a period of millennia as housing and some of them as tombs or churches. During the early byzantine’s period V to VI century it served as a monastic cloister, ie there was no one called rock monasteries in Dobrudja.

Rock necropolis.

Burial facilities in the open three cemeteries in reserve is 120. They are carved into the rocky plains or steep plateau slopes. In southern terrace studied several tombs called cave type. They are at the heart of the rock and consist of small antechambers through which they enter into a rectangular burial chamber. Most detailed studied necropolis № 1, which is located in the dobrudja’s plateau about 700 meters north of that already early byzantine fortress. Situated on crown of towering about 50-60 meters above the sea cliff. According to its architectural plan burial facilities are divided into several major types. The first type is a cave with a small shaft with or without a porch steps. The second are the tombs where the cameras are relatively large, usually oval or rectangular hole to the surface, closed with hewn stone.

Typically, these tombs are better shaped atria and feet. The third type graves are rectangular or oblong shape, covered with one or several monumental slabs (In this type of equipment have buried children).

It is facing the sea, towards the rising sun, as most cemeteries. Necropolis №12, who studied 14 tombs are located several kilometers east of the village of Kamen breg. Unlike №1 necropolis tombs here are divided into small groups with orientation and east-west and north-south. Most of them are larger and more precisely carved. Special interest tomb №2 on whose eastern wall is a stylized image of a bull’s head the only plastic ornaments discovered so far in the surveyed cemeteries. With few exceptions, almost all the tombs were robbed in antiquity or later. The excavated burial outfit clay pots, pans, bowls, lamps, bronze and iron buckles, glass beads, coins and other dates from the chronological limits of II to V century. The tombs were family, have worked a long time. In some of them were found 15 skeletons. Cemeteries in the archaeological complex “Yailata” make us ask ourselves a very important and interesting issues not only with funeral rites, but also people who created them. Formal and typological comparison facilities in the surveyed cemeteries shows more similarity to the tombs of the territory of northeastern Black sea shore than those of the eastern Rhodopes, Strandja Sakar and other areas of our country. So connect their occurrence in dobrudja’s Black sea coast with the invasion and colonization of “barbarian” tribes, most likely from the sarmatian origin.

Fortres

In the northern part of the plane terrace etc. much Yaila, is a small fortress.

The place was built, is higher than the surrounding terrain and is separated from the north and east of the sea with sheer cliffs 20 meters high. This necessitated the construction of fortification walls just west and south.

The walls are 2.60 m wide with a total length of 130 meters. In front to the land to the west wall rise four solid towers on the east end of south wall was located gate of the fortress. Faces of defense equipment are precisely constructed from tightly clinging to one another hewn stone blocks in some places reaching up to 2.00 m and width up to 0.70 m. From there, clinging to the city walls were built three well-preserved, sweep stairs. They are located so as to enable the rapid and unimpeded movement of defenders to the platform of the walls and towers. Inside the fortification settlement has been excavated a small area. Revealed is part of the main street leading from the entrance to the center of the fortress, and a large building, which probably served as a guardhouse. Closely fit to one of the building stone staircase, which indicates that it was a two floors. The most important and neuralgic point for the operation and defense of the fortress was the gate. It is the kind of tower entrance gate with two 2.60 m wide. The outside was barred by a descending door (so. cataract) and internal with double doors, barred with massive wooden beams that glided in specially constructed for this purpose deep channels in the walls. Above the entrance, which was vaulted, has towered tower watched over, it has provided better protection of the gate and the surrounding area. Discovered various archaeological materials made of copper, bronze, bone and clay, and numerous coins show that the fortress was built at the end of the V the beginning of VI century. There was a time of some of the most devastating raids of the slavs and proto bulgarians, so her life was short lived. Was finally demolished in the last quarter of the VI century, the burned ruins of fortification for another three centuries. Only in the IX century around it old bulgarian’s village. At the same time the gate was blocked with a wall of stone blocks used, and in the troop in the west wall was built a small chapel.

Like most towns in Dobrudja and Yailata was destroyed by the Pechenegishes in the middle of XI century. In fact, after this date the great Yaila life complete halt.
Besides the numerous remains of ancient civilizations, these sites and capture the splendor of its flora and fauna. Rocks are visited by rare birds cormorants, large and small bustard, hoopoe, plovers, owls and others. In the rock crevices of the walls that hide different reptiles. Shrubs, peonies and fig trees, along paths are magnificent decoration of this wild, bizarre place of peace and quiet that provokes the human imagination. The territory of Yailata nest over 50 species of birds. Here goes Via pontica one of the main migration routes of migratory birds.

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