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Burgas (Bulgarian: Áóðãàñ, sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 210,260. It is also the fourth-largest by population in the country, after Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna. It is the capital of Burgas Province and an important industrial, transport, cultural and tourist centre.
Surrounded by the coastal Burgas Lakes and located at the westernmost point of the Black Sea, the large Burgas Bay, Burgas has the largest and most important Bulgarian port. Today, it is a key economic, cultural and tourist centre of southeastern Bulgaria, with the Burgas Airport serving the resorts of the southern Bulgarian coast.
Burgas is situated in the westernmost point of the bay of the same name and in the eastern part of the Burgas plain which is located to the east of the Upper Thracian Plain. Burgas is located at 389 km of Sofia, 272 km of Plovdiv and 350 km of Istanbul. To the east and north the city is surrounded by the Burgas Lakes - Vaya, Atanasovsko and Mandrensko which are home to several hundred bird species. Pan-European corridor 8 passes through the city.
Burgas is divided into the following neighbourhoods:
With a Decision from the Counsel of Minister in 2009 the villages Banevo and Vetren were incorporated to Burgas.
Currently a new city plan is considered which will open the city to the sea and includes several residential neighbourhoods and a new highway junction.
Burgas is a successor of the Ancient Greek city of Pyrgos (Πύργος), founded by colonists from Apolonia as a military and observational post against the other important settlement in the region — Mesembria. Besides Pirgos, the present-day city expands over the area of three other ancient settlements: Castrition, Skafida and Rossokastron.
During the rule of the Ancient Romans, Burgas was known as Deultum, and was established as a military colony for veterans by Vespasian. In the Middle Ages, a small fortress called Pirgos (Πύργος being Greek for "tower") was erected on the place and was most probably used as a watchtower. It was only in the 17th century that a settlement named Ahelo-Pirgas grew in the modern area of the city. It was later renamed to Bourgas and had only about 3,000 inhabitants, most of them Greeks at the time of the Liberation.
Later, it became a major centre on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and a city of well-developed industry and trade. A number of oil and chemical companies were gradually built. Salt and iron are also mined and traded abroad.
Street scene from the centre of Burgas.
Architecture of Burgas.
Bustling street in Burgas, July 2006.
Burgas Railway StationIn the early 1800s Burgas was depopulated after raids by kurzdhali bandits. By the mid 19th century it had recovered its economic prominence through the growth of craftsmanship and the export of grain.
In 19th century, with the increasing maritime trade in the Black Sea Burgas became one of the most important port-cities. However, it has lost some of its importance with the shift of the trade between Balkans-Istanbul-Trabzon to Southern port-cities with the construction of Salonica-Istanbul railways. In 1903, the railway station in Burgas opened, giving an additional boost to the city's expansion. Burgas, unlike many other Bulgarian cities, was not much affected by Communist-type urbanization and has kept many of its 19th and early 20th century architecture.
Today the local port is the largest in Bulgaria adding significantly to the regional economy. Burgas also holds annual national exhibitions and international festivals and has a vibrant student population of over 6,000 that add to the city's appeal. The historical society also maintains an open-air museum at Beglik Tash.
Several countries have consulates in Burgas, among them Turkey, Belarus, Romania, Russia and Ukraine.
Burgas Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after the city of Burgas.
Burgas is an important industrial center. The most notable industrial enterprise is LUKOIL Neftochim Burgas - the largest oil refinery in South-eastern Europe and the largest manufacturing plant in the Balkans.
Institutions of higher education
Prof. Dr. Assen Zlatarov University
School of Technology
Aleko Konstantinov School of Hospitality
School of Medicine
Bourgas Free University
Burgas Regional Historical Museum
Museum of Nature and Science
International Folklore Festival
Apostol Karamitev (1923–1973), actor
Dimitar Dimitrov (b. 1959),football coach
Georgi Chilikov (b. 1978), footballer
Georgi Dyulgerov (b. 1980), pop singer
Georgi Kostadinov (b. 1950), first Bulgarian boxing Olympic champion
Georgi Kaloyanchev (b. 1925), actor
Georgi Mihalev (b. 1968), competitive swimmer
Kostas Varnalis (1884–1974) Greek poet
Nedyalko Yordanov (b. 1940), writer
Nikola Stanchev (b. 1930), first Bulgarian Olympic champion
Petya Dubarova (1962–1979), poetess
Prodan Gardzhev (1936–2003), Bulgarian Olympic champion - wrestling
Radostin Kishishev (b. 1974), footballer
Zlatko Yankov, (b.1966), famous football player, part of USA summer 1994
Notable buildings and architectural structures
The Church of Saint Cyril and Methodius in Burgas.The building of the TV Centre Burgas ( ÐÐÒÑ Áóðãàñ ) looks like a highrise with 6 floors with a tower looking like "Eiffel Tower with concrete legs" on its roof .
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